Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
Dort J., 1Sedláček D., 2Hadravská Š., Tobrmanová H., 2Mukenšnabl P.
Neonatologické oddělení FN, Plzeň 1Infekční klinika FN, Plzeň 2Šiklův patologicko-anatomický ústav FN, Plzeň
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) belongs to the herpesvirus family. Its distribution is ubiquitous in man and many other
mammals. CMV causes a typical cytopathic effect with enlargement of the cells that contain intranuclear and
cytoplasmic inclusions. CMV is spread directly or by a contact with secretions. Nosocomial transmission can occur
during blood transfusion or organ transplantation. Virus excretion after infection continues for a long time. CMV is
the most frequent cause of congenital infections (1–2 % children). A foetal infection can lead to a preterm labour.
Most of CMV congenital infections are benign, only a small proportion of children develop a disease with
sensorineural hearing loss or a life threatening multiorgan disease. The diagnosis can be done on the basis of
identification of specific antibodies, virus cultivation and PCR from urine, saliva, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. An
antiviral drug ganciclovir can be used for treatment. Anti-CMV vaccines are under the development. Three cases of
a congenital CMV infection are described in the paper.
CMV, congenital cytomegalovirus infection.