Involvement of MicroRNAs in Cancer Biology and Possibilities of
Their Application to Diagnostic and Predictive Oncology
1,3Slabý O., 1,3Krekáč D., 1Hrstka R., 2,3Svoboda M., 2,3Vyzula R.
1Oddělení klinické a experimentální patologie, Masarykův onkologický ústav, Brno 2Klinika komplexní onkologické péče, Masarykův onkologický ústav, Brno, 3LF MU, Brno
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are large class of non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene
expression. Their ability of translational repression applied for example on oncogenes or tumor-suppressor
genes indicates involvement of miRNAs in multi-step carcinogenesis. Evidences of miRNAs linkage
to biological processes like apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival are rapidly
accumulating. Approximately 50% of miRNAs are located at fragile sites of chromosomes or regions
known to be amplified or deleted in human cancer. That is why, non-coding miRNAs seem to be another
level of genetic information which regulation is altered or lost during neoplastic growth. Expression
profiles of miRNAs are successfully used for molecular classification, more exact diagnosis and prognosis
of human cancers and reached analogical analytical characteristics like studies based on DNA
micro-arrays technology and profiling of coding transcripts. In this review we attempt to introduce basic
knowledge of miRNAs biogenesis and biological functions and in particular summarise reports focused
on miRNAs in oncology research area.
cancer, apoptosis, microRNA, gene expression profiles, prediction, prognosis.