Apolipoprotein E (apo E) is a genetically polymorphous glykoprotein made up of 299 amino acids. It is an important
part of triacylglycerol rich lipoproteins [chylomicrons, lipoproteins with a very low density (VLDL) and their
„residues“]. Apo E is a ligand of apo B, E receptors and thus regulates in a marked way the homeostasis of lipids
and lipoproteins in plasma. The genetic polymorphism of apo E is controlled by three alleles e2, e3, e4 which influence
individual plasma cholesterol levels and thus the process of atherogenesis.
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a plasma lipoprotein which is another independent, genetically determined risk factor
in the process of atherogenesis. The basis of its structure is a micelle of LDL which is linked by a disulphidic covalent
with the glycoprotein of the apolipoprotein (a). Lp (a) was detected in atherosclerotic plaques and it is assumed that
it participates in the penetration of lipids into the vascular wall. Its thrombogenic properties were also detected due
to its structural relationship with plasminogen to which it is linked and inhibits competitively the transformation of
plasminogen to plasmin.
apolipoprotein E, homeostasis of plasma cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein (a).