Atherosclerosis and its complications belong to the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in the
developed countries. Far from all cases of early atherosclerosis can be explained by presence of „classical“ risk
factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and namely by oxidised forms of lipoproteins of lowdensity, by smoking
or due to not fully compensated diabetesmellitus). Our review brings information of another three serious risk factors
– homocysteine, lipoprotein (a), and highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Metabolic relations among them are given
as well as results of comparatively independent clinical studies and possibilities to influence these risk factors.
Though they are comparatively independent, one feature connects them – they participate significantly on the
development of endothelial dysfunction, which is supposed to be the initial stadium of atherogenesis.
homocysteine, lipoprotein (a), C-reactive protein, atherosclerosis, risk factors, endothelial dysfunction.