Type 2 DM represents a multifactorial disease – both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the etiology.
In spite of an enormous effort, unraveling the genetics of type 2 DM has proved problematic. A polygenic inheritance
is proposed for most cases. More than 250 candidate genes have been studied and increasing attention is being
directed at two of them: the PPARγ2 gene (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gama2) and KCNJ11
(potassium channel inwardly rectifying). The PPARγ2 is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor subfamily of
transcription factors. It plays a key role in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and energy balance. The KCNJ11
gene codes for a pore-forming subunit of the inwardly rectifying ATP sensitive K+ channel, which is involved in the
direct regulation of insulin secretion. Here, recent knowledge regarding involvement of these two genes in complex
metabolic pathways is summarized. In the whole review, we focus on the glucose homeostasis.
type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, PPARγ2 gene, KCNJ11 gene, genetic polymorphism, glucose