With advances in molecular genetics, functional polymorphisms of various lipid-related genes have been
investigated, to discern their metabolic effects and role in gene-diet interactions. New interdisciplinary
concepts have emerged; while nutrigenetics examines genetic variation and associated responses to
nutrients, in order to generate individual dietary recommendations, nutrigenomics focuses on the effects
of nutrients on regulatory functions of genes and their products. This review summarizes recent
knowledge concerning common polymorphisms of candidate genes for some apolipoproteins, transfer
proteins, cell receptors, and enzymes, which presumably modulate cardiovascular risk. Most studies
investigate isolated single nucleotide polymorphisms and nutrients, while only few try to elucidate
complex interrelationships between coexistent multiple gene variants.
atherogenic dyslipidemias, gene polymorphisms, dietary factors, cardiovascular risk.