Background. Composition of the nonesterified fatty acids in plasma in metabolic syndrome patients and
in other syndromes of insulin resistance is altered. Fatty acid profile in plasma is related to the
composition of dietary fat and to the metabolic changes of fatty acids, e.g. to de novo lipogenesis,
β-oxidation and conversion accompanying the oxidative stress. The aim of the work was to study the
fatty acid composition in the major plasma lipid classes in relation to the insulin resistance, to some
polymorphisms of candidate genes with activity related to insulin resistance, and to the lipoprotein
composition and parameters of lipid peroxidation.
Methods and Results. 95 patients with metabolic syndrome (56 M/39 F) and 195 healthy persons (99
M/96 F) were included into the cohort. Basic clinical data, parameters of glucose homeostasis, lipid
concentration in plasma and conjugated diens in LDL were determined. Fatty acids were detected by
capillary gas chromatography. Polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E, intestinal isoforms of fatty acid
binding protein (Ala54Thr) and γ-2 isoforms of peroxisomal activated receptor (Ala12Pro) were
analyzed using combination of polymerase chain reaction methods and by the detection of
polymorphisms of the restriction fragment length. Persons with metabolic syndrome had higher
concentrations of CRP and conjugated diens in LDL. In all lipid classes we proved a decreased
concentration of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase of unsaturated fatty acids. From all the
acids, the only significant was the decrease of linolic acid concentration and the increase of palmitic and
palmitoyl acids. Results showed an increase of Δ9 palmitic acid desaturase activity, Δ6 linolic acid desaturase and elongase activity. Concentration of conjugated diens in LDL inversely correlated with
linolic acid. Clinical or laboratory parameters and homozygotic combination of polymorphism studied
were not mutually related.
Conclusions. Changes in the profile of fatty acids during the metabolic syndrome results from the
elevated lipogenesis and from the higher level of oxidative stress.
metabolic syndrome, fatty acid composition, desaturase and elongase activity, oxidative
stress, gene polymorphisms. Po.