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  Česky / Czech version Čas. Lék. čes., 141, 2002, No. 1, p. 28-34
The Use of Medical Genetics in the Reproductive Medicine 
Macek M., Vilímová Š., Potužníková P., Yurov Y.,Vorsanova S., Diblík J., Krebsová A., Machatková M., Koudová M., Alánová R., Matějčková M., Hladíková E., Broučková M., Hüttelová R., Vincenciová R., Paulasová P., Brandjeská M., Uhrová E., Kratěnová A., Sme tanová I., Novotná D., Brandjeská M., Uhrová E., Kratěnová A., Smetanová I., Novotná D., Chudoba D., Kulovaný E., Krutílková V., Hromadníková I., Mardešič T.,Macek M. Jr.

Ústav biologie a lékařské genetiky 2. LF UK a FNM, Praha Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika 2. LF UK a FNM, Praha 2. dětská klinika 2. LF UK a FNM, Praha Sanatorium Pronatal, Praha Molekulárně cytogenetická laboratoř, Ruská akademie věd, Moskva Ústav pediatrie a dětské chirurgie, Moskva


       Reproductive genetics (RG) is another new field of medical genetics, integrated with reproductive medicine, assisted reproduction and developmental genetic. RG is closely linked to the periconceptional prevention, perinato- logy, ultrasound and biochemical screening in the end of the first and beginning of the second trimesters. RG is based on the system of specialized genetic counseling, clinical cytogenetics, molecular cytogenetics and molecular genetics to provide prefertilization, preimplantation and classical prenatal diagnosis in the Ist to IIIrd trimesters. Thus, RG is part of the fetal medicine and therapy. The six years experience with RG is summarized. A system of the specialized health care, organized, if possible in one integrated center of RG and reproductive medicine (RM) is presented. Reproductive medicine provides all necessary clinical gynecological and andrological surveillance, with assisted reproduction and further obstetrical ultrasound examinations, including nuchal translucency measurements and 2D, 3D ultrasound, echokardiography examinations, if indicated, as well as the invasive method of prenatal diagnosis and perinatology care. Specialized genetic counseling and cytogenetic analysis, if indicated, should be offered to all partners with reproductive disorders as well as to oocyte donors. Chromosome anomalies are disclosed in 6% of men with abnormal sperm analysis as well as in women with severe reproductive disorders. In males with severe oligo, azoospermia, the sperm aneuploidy analysis by molecular cytogenetic methods is recommended. Adviced is also the molecular genetic detection of Y chromosome microdeletions, which is detected in 9% of our azoospermic men with deletions in AZFb region. CFTR gene mutations and intron 8 and 10 polymorphism examination is provided not only in men with obstructive azoospermia (CBAVD), but also if severe oligospermy with less than 1x10 6 sperm/ml is detected. Molecular genetic analysis of thrombophilic mutations of factor II., V. (Leiden) and MTHFR gene in unexplained recurrent abortions and in cases with unsuccessful IVF is part of the diagnostic strategy. The population frequencies of carriers of mutation of factor II. (2.3%), factor V.-Leiden (5.7%) and MTHFR gene (38%) were determined. The laser biopsy of the first polar body and of blastomeres was introduced for FISH analysis of chromosome aneuploidies. Quantitative fluorescent PCR (QFPCR) detection is used for testing of the most frequent delta F508 CFTR gene mutation and the most frequent aneuploidies of chromosome 13, 18, 21, X and Y. QFPCR was successfully tested for male fetal sex examination from partially purified fetal cells in the maternal blood. The first trimester ultrasound and biochemical screening is recommended to all successful pregnancies after different IVF methods. If borderline levels of first trimester biochemical screening of PAPP-A protein and bhCG are detected without pathological ultrasound findings, classical triple test of biochemical screening in 16th week of gestation is recommended. If pathological results of ultrasound and biochemical screening are disclosed, invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis is indicated as well as in pregnancies after ICSL, if there is not any obstetrical contraindication.

        Key words: reproductive genetics, reproductive medicine, preimplantation prenatal diagnosis, ultrasound and biochemical screening, CFTR and thrombofilic mutations, Y chromosome microdeletions, genetic counseling.

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