In the cascade hormone - second messenger - cellular G-proteins (GTP binding proteins), impairment can occur
also at the last step: Mutant G-proteins may amplify the response (e.g. hypophyseal and thyroide adenomas) or reduce
it (pseudohypoparathyreosis, testitoxicosis). Other new group of diseases appears to be anexinopathy: Among anexins
belong also lippocortins and impairments occur in the hemocoagulation. „Reverse endocrinology" is a process
description when the recognition of receptor (called an „orphan receptor") comes earlier than that of the hormone:
Such receptors are known for several steroid hormones, retinoids and eicosanoids and it appears they are important
also in the metabolism of cholesterol. A single antigen - glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), can cause autoimmune
disease as the immunodependent diabetes (IDDM). Treatment of the skin T-cell lymphoma by some retinoids can
result in hypothyroidysm. Retrotransposones are example of the human genome modification with yet unknown
clinical manifestations. Hepatocytal growth factor reveals to be the hope for treatment of cirrhosis. Search for
effective peroral insulin substitutes is at present based on testing of various metabolites of fungi. Antibodies against
TNF (tumor necrosis factor) become tested as „anticytokine therapy" in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Some
other suggestions for new ways of treatment is also listed, including the intranasal administration of estradiol.
endocrinology, G-protein diseases, reverse endocrinology, therapy.