The author discusses metabolic processes during exogenous and endogenous lipid transport and deviations in the
metabolism of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in multiple metabolic syndrome and in so-called diabetic
dyslipidaemia. Specific phenotypic manifestations of diabetic dyslipidaemia include hypertriacylglycerolaemia,
hypercholesterolaemia, elevated plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and reduced levels of
HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. Other recent
findings relating to this syndrome include evidence of elevated concentrations of small and dense LDL micelles (<
25 nm), so-called LDL phenotype B, which are easily modified (e.g. by oxidation, glycation etc.), and subsequent
uptake by „scavenger“ receptors into macrophages which after filling become foam cells and penetrate into the
vascular wall. Elevated levels of small and dense LDL micelles, the accelerating process of atherogenesis, were
proved in all multiple metabolic syndrome carriers. The atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype hastens markedly
atherogenesis and subsequent manifestation of cardiovascular diseases.
multiple metabolic syndrome, metabolism of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, small dense
LDL particles, modified LDL, diabetic dyslipidaemia.