Development of Smoking Habits in the Population of Czech Republic
Škodová Z., Cífková R., Adámková V., Dušková A., Hauserová G., Hejl Z.,
Jozífová M., Lánská V., Novozámská E., Petržilková Z., Pistulková H.,
Piťha J., Stávek P., Šraierová D.
Background. Tobacco smoking belongs to high risk factors for the circulation diseases. Aim of the present study
is to identify and describe smoking habits of the population in nine districts in Czech republic in years 1997/98 and
in six of these districts to analyze smoking trends during the period of 1985-1997/98.
Methods and Results. Information on the smoking habits were collected in years 1985, 1988, and 1992 in six
districts which took part in the international project WHO MONICA. In 1997/98 data collection was extended into
three other districts. New randomly selected samples of 1% of the population were explored each time. 5293 males
and 5610 females 25-64 years old were questioned during a controlled talk with a health-officer. In 1997/98 in nine
districts the prevalence of actual smokers was 38 %, that of former smokers was 24 % and 38 % of non-smokers.
The group of females consisted of 27 % of actual smokers, 10% of former smokers, and 63 % of non-smokers. The
average daily consumption was 16.4 (±8.6) cigarettes per day in males and 11.3 (±7.0) cigarettes per day in females.
In 1985-1997/98 the smoking prevalence of males aged 25-64 years decreased in six districts from 49 % to 37 %
(p<0.001). No changes were detected in females of the same age group (28 % in 1985, 26 % in 1997/98). Decreasing
tendency was observed in both males and females up to 45 years old, in males also in the age group 55-64 years. In
females older than 45 years the smoking prevalence increased. Significant changes in the smoking prevalence were
found when samples were analyzed according to the education level. In males with basic education and among skilled
workers the smoking prevalence decreased in years 1985-1997 from 53 % to 42 % (p<0.05), among males with
secondary education smoking prevalence decreased from 45 % to 33 % (p<0.01) and in graduates from 34 % to 23 %
(p<0.01). In females with basic education the smoking prevalence increased from 25 % to 31 % (p<0.05), among
females with secondary education it decreased from 34 % to 21 % (p<0.001), in graduate females it decreased from
31 % to 18 % (p<0.05).
Conclusions. Present situation and 13 years long development of smoking habits differs in males and females.
Higher prevalence was found in males as well as the daily consumption of cigarettes. Since 1985 the male smoking
prevalence has decreased in age groups 25-64 years and in age and education level subgroups. Only partial decrease
of the female smoking prevalence was observed in age group till 45 years and in subgroups with secondary education
and graduates. Significant increase in the smoking prevalence among females with basic education as well as the
finding that women do not quit smoking with increasing age my become an important information for preventive
cigarette smoking, education, project WHO MONICA.