Recent publication of the working draft of the human genome and its first analyses revealed several surprising
findings. The human genome contains only about 42 000 genes, contrary to previous estimates of about 100 000.
Comparison with other genomes suggests that the complexity of an organism neednot result from increasing gene
number, but it can be based on regulatory mechanisms associated with alternative gene expression and on complex
interactions of genes and/or their protein products. The progress in genomics and related modern disciplines is
influencing substantially the biomedical research and the medicine itself, where the main focus shifts towards
multifactorial diseases. The new knowledge will lead to much more effective diagnosis, exact prognosis of the disease
course and of individual drug response, to the targeted therapy using new drugs and gene therapy, and mainly towards
targeted prevention based on the detailed knowledge of individual disease predisposition.
Human Genome Project, DNA sequencing, gene expression, genomics, individualised medicine.