Hypokalemia is associated with some renal diseases manifested by renal tubular acidosis (type I and II) or by renal
tubular syndrome (Bartter’s, Gitelman’s and Liddle’s syndrome). Bartter’s syndrome, originally described by Batter
and colleagues in 1962, is a set of closely related renal tubular disorders characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia,
metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. The underlying renal abnormality results
in excessive urinary losses of sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium. Muscle weakness, polydipsia, polyuria and
mental retardation can be also present. Affected children have poor growth rates and they appear malnourished. The
article is focused on ethiopathogenesis, laboratory and clinical characteristics and on the treatment of Bartter’s
Bartter’s syndrome, hypocalemic renal tubular syndrome, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis.