Neoangiogenesis, congestive heart failure and prevention of reoclusion after PCI represent the main targets of gene
therapy (GT) in cardiology. Therapeutic angiogenesis can be used in advanced myocardial ischemia and in angina
pectoris not suitable for the revascularization by cardiosurgery or by catheterization techniques. Heart failure is
another indication of GTin cardiology.Modulation of calciumhomeostasis, beta-adrenergic receptors and resistance
of myocytes against apoptosis belongs to main forms of GTin this indication. Prevention of restenosis after PCI
(with orwithout stent implantation) represents the third possible indication ofGT.Conversion of ventricularmyocytes
into pacemaker cells using the gene coding potassium channel was described. Some benefit of GTc an be expected
in systemic and pulmonary hypertension. An optimal vector should be defined, as well as the optimal access (probably
transmyocardial supplemented with intravenous application) and doses. GTs eems to be safe and well tolerated by
patients. Randomized, placebo control studies should be initiated for the final clinical assessment of this method.
gene therapy, angiogenesis, restenosis, heart failure, apoptosis.