Various techniques are now available for wide genome screening of alterations in copy number, structure and expression of genes and DNA sequences. Molecular cytogenetics has special techniques of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), spectral karyotyping (SKY) and multicolor FISH (mFISH). We present principles of these methods, their use in molecular cytogenetic examinations of patients. We quote our experience with mFISH for analyses of complex chromosomal rearrangements in neoplastic cells and identification of inborn supernumerary marker chromosome. Further, we also review the first experiences with multicolor high resolution banding of chromosome (mBAND). This method was used for analysis of bone marrow cells of patient with myelodysplastic syndrome and deletion of chromosome No. 5. With mBAND exact breakpoints were localized. Multicolor fluorescence methods mFISH and mBAND becones the new tools for more precise analyses of inborn and acquired numerical and structural chromosomal rearrangements.
multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, mFISH, mBAND.