Multiple metabolic syndrome (MMS) implies a frequent coincidence of four basic serious metabolic risk factors for subsequent manifestation of cardiovascular disease. The latter include: central type obesity, arterial hypertension, dyslipoproteinaemia and diabetes mellitus type II (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus - NIDDM). MMS is also described as syndrome X, Reaven´s syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, metabolic syndrome or as the „deadly quartet“. NIDDM in humans is conceived as a syndrome the pathogenesis of which is multifactorial and it is not an unequivocal nosological unit. It many epidemiological studies reliable evidence was provided that in the aetiology of NIDDM a marked genetic influence is involved. Its genetic predisposition is conditioned by the interaction of candidate genes and a complex of influences of the external environment. Evidence was provided that MMS phenotypes cumulate only in members of some families. The mode of genetic transmission of NIDDM remains obscure.
multiple metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type II (NIDDM) - incidence and prevalence, Reaven´s syndrome, insulin resistance, genetic predisposition, MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young)