The body scheme is a complex of memory patterns secured in the structures of the brain, where the parietal lobes
play the most important role. Basic principles are given by the genetic programming of the structure and function
along with the synthesis of information brought by means of sensory activity. The unitary perception of the body
scheme is a dynamic image, enabling conscious and unconscious representation of our body, its parts, their functions,
position, shape and/or movements. The recognition of the body scheme in humans is named somatognosia. Disorders
of somatognosia include visceral and somatic phantom, phantom pain and other disorders related to the capability
of communication by means of language: autotopoagnosia, hemiasomatognosia, pain asymboly, anosognosia of
hemiplegia, anosognosia of blindness, deafness, neglect and other defects appearing at the neurologist’s and
psychiatrist‘s borderline of interest. Interest in the visceral phantom is usually much smaller than that in the phantom
limb. The aim of this paper was to draw the to phantom phenomena in patients following rectum amputation and
colostomy. A survey of contemporary knowledge about the body scheme and its disorders, cortical plasticity and the
problem of cortical maladaptation are presented.
phantom pain, visceral and somatic phantom, somatognosia, body scheme, cortical plasticity.