Hypertension is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood is defined as blood
pressure > 95. percentile for healthy children population. The prevalence of hypertension in childhood is considerably
lower than in adults and is about 1%. The aetiology of hypertension in childhood differs from adult population
- in children secondary forms are more common than primary, however, in adolescents primary form already prevails.
In general, the younger the child and the higher the blood pressure, the more probably it is a secondary form of
hypertension. The most common causes of secondary hypertension are renal diseases (renoparenchymal or renovascular).
Cardiac diseases (aortic isthmus stenosis), endocrinopathies, central nervous system disorders or use of hypertensinogenic
drugs are less frequent causes of secondary hypertension. Each child with hypertension has to be carefully
examined; the extent of the examination depends on the age of the child and severity of hypertension. The main
task for the investigation is to exclude or reveal secondary form of hypertension, which could be causally
treated (e.g. angioplasty in renal artery stenosis). Treatment of hypertension is non-pharmacological and pharmacological
(angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, angiotensin
arterial hypertension, blood pressure, children.