SDF-1, a novel cytokine from a-chemokine family, plays a key role in regulation of haematopoiesis. It exists in two forms (alpha and beta) that originate from alternative splicing. Its high expression in the bone marrow microenvironment accounts for the release of progenitor cells in the circulation and represents a prevention of uncontrolled leak of CD34+ cells. Notably significant is its stimulation of proliferation of B-lineage progenitors, in other haematopoietic lineages it functions as a facilitating factor of other cytokines. Ability of induction of platelet aggregation reveales the role of SDF-1 in thrombogenesis and vascular lumen obliteration in vessels affected by atherosclerosis. The only receptor for SDF-1 in thrombogenesis and vascular lumen obliteration in vessels affected by atherosclerosis. The only receptor for SDF-1 is CXCR, whose presence was proved in great numbers of tissues and organs. Their presence was also verified in brain tumours, whereas degree of their expression raises with grading, angiogenesis and occurrence of necrotic changes in tumour. Thanks to this feature it will probably be possible to estimate the prognosis of the patients. SDF-1 is also a suppressor of immune response via its facilitating activity on the interaction of the macrophages and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Affinity of the T-lymphocytotropic HIV to CXCR4 holds out hopes for a possible modulation of the infection with SDF-1. The significance of SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 is supported by morphological and functional abnormalities of new-born mice in their absence, especially disorders in haematopoiesis, angiogenesis and development of cardiac and nervous tissues.
chemokines, interkrines, interleukins, adhesion molecules, haematopoetic progenitor cells, alternative splicing, SDF-1, CXCR4.