By analyzing the standard works in the scientific world literature, it was possible to construct a contemporary
view on the etiology and antibiotic therapy of some urinary tract infections. It can be stated, that the most effective
remedies are cotrimoxazol and fluoroquinolones. In contrary to beta-lactam antibiotics, cotrimoxazole and fluoro-
quinolones work with a rapid bactericidal effect, they have long elimination half-times and better sterilization
capacity in the periurethral region, and it use brings minimal risk of recurrence of the infection. This facts are
compared with results of bacteriological investigation of urine, which were done in the microbiological laboratories
of University Hospital Hradec Králové, Czech Republic, in 1998. The most frequent origins of urinary tract infections
are Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Stains. The are keeping high susceptibility to contrimoxazole, furantoin
and oxoline acid. The other Gram negative rods isolated from hospitalised patients are highly resistant to most of
antimicrobial agents included fluorochinolons, which resistance culminates to 50 %. The widest spectrum of
pathogens and the highest resistance was found in the hospitalised patients of the university hospital. High percentages
of resistant strains was also in patients from the district hospitals. The results are discussed.
urinary tract infections, cultivation.